The Gospel of Mark 2

A study course by The Reverend Christopher Cooke

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

A Personal Reflection and the Sources of the Study.

In 1977, the actor Alec McCowen, began to give his performances of Mark’s Gospel (King James Version) and Jane and I went to see him do this in a London Theatre. It was transfixing and it is still available on DVD.

When I was studying for my Oxford degree (1979-1981), the understanding of the Gospel of Mark was in a state of flux. I felt more confident about the other Gospels. It was clearer what the other Gospel writers were about – even the more mysterious Gospel of John seemed more approachable (and was very well served by commentators).

In contrast, a greater consensus was growing around the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which were written a little later. I felt more at ease with them. If we can assume that Matthew and Luke used Mark’s Gospel, then:

  • Matthew’s Gospel was written after the fall of Jerusalem in AD70 and the Jewish religious leaders were formulating their Scriptures (what we call the Old Testament). The Temple had been destroyed and the Synagogue came to more prominence with the emphasis on Moses. Matthew portrays Jesus as a great Teacher and as a new and greater Moses. There are five main blocks of teaching mirroring the Books of Moses (Genesis to Deuteronomy).
  • Luke’s Gospel contains many more of the famous parables. There is a second volume: The Acts of the Apostles. The journeying element is very important. It tells how the Gospel starts in Galilee and climaxes in Jerusalem and (in Acts) moves from Jerusalem across the Mediterranean until it reaches Rome. In so doing, Luke is demonstrating that Christians are not a threat and are good Roman citizens. And I was taught by an expert on Luke’s Gospel! (Professor Christopher Evans in retirement).

I had read Anthony E. Harvey’s excellent short Introduction to the New Testament (“Something Overheard”) before going to Theological College. He wrote that Mark’s Gospel was full of mysteries and that it mystified him.

The commentaries of Vincent Taylor (1952) and C.E.B. Cranfield (1959 and continually updated until 1972) argued a traditional position. The Gospel was written in Rome by John Mark shortly after the martyrdom of Peter and contained Peter’s recollections of Jesus’ life. This helped explain why Peter was shown in a very poor light in Mark’s Gospel. It is true that Peter would have needed an interpreter if the Aramaic speaking fisherman was to address the Christians of Rome. However, this has been found to be over-simplistic.

The Pelican Commentaries were important for our studies. John Fenton’s Matthew, John Marsh’s John and G.B. Caird’s (rather short) Luke were excellent. [Christopher Evans’ huge Luke has now replaced G.B. Caird’s commentary]. Dennis Nineham’s Mark (1963) was, I felt, the least approachable. Dennis Nineham’s commentary was more academic and stronger on saying what the Gospel of Mark was not about and in combating the traditionalists above. He approached the Gospel as a ‘form critic’ and argued that it had all been processed by the infant Church and represented the Church’s worship and beliefs.

There was, however, a growing feeling that neither of these positions did full justice to Mark as an innovator, pastor and theologian.

Hugh Anderson’s New Century Mark (1976) was very recent and did not get into softback until I had finished my degree. It is a very well-balanced approach but he is again hesitant in claiming too much about Mark’s Gospel. I used a library copy and then my mother gave me the softback version as an ordination present!

There were also ‘The Introductions’ often written by German scholars. These were very scholarly and exceedingly dry. W.G. Kummel’s “Introduction to the New Testament” (1975) is very sound for reference.

The American Norman Perrin offered a very different and very accessible Introduction (1974). He is particularly good on Matthew, Paul and John. He argued that Chapter 13 was the key to understanding Mark’s Gospel and he entitled his chapter on Mark “The Apocalyptic Drama”. He found links with the Book of Revelation (The Apocalypse of John). I have to say that I was unconvinced then and I still remain unconvinced. There are so many imponderables about Chapter 13. I feel it is a shame that the Gospel set for St Mark’s Day is Chapter 13. It should be what we have studied: the excellent Chapter 1!

At least, Norman Perrin took the Mark seriously and saw that his Gospel was ground-breaking in so many ways. My tutor, Christopher Evans, also wrote a book about the Resurrection (1970) which has a section on Mark’s Gospel and in 1975 he gave some open lectures of the subject of the Passion which were later published.

I tried to keep up with studies during my ministry. There have been some notable contributions since then. Ernest Best wrote “Mark: The Gospel as Story” in 1983 and I think this contains some wonderful insights. William Telford edited some articles on “The Interpretation of Mark” in 1985. His opening introductory chapter is very good.

We had to wait over twenty years (nearly as long as we waited for Christopher Evans’ Luke) for Morna Hooker to produce her extremely good commentary on Mark of 1991.

In 2000, I had the privilege of attending a Retreat at my old Theological College when the addresses were given by Leslie (J.L.) Houlden on aspects of Mark’s Gospel. Reading my notes from this brings back great joy. They were wonderful. In 2003, Eerdmans produced a one volume Commentary of the Bible rather like Peake’s which now seems rather dated. Craig A. Evans provided a very good commentary on Mark’s Gospel. [He is no relation to Christopher Evans].

My ministry in the Lichfield Diocese was blessed by the contribution of two New Testament theologians. Bishop John Davies was Bishop of Shrewsbury from 1987 to 1994 and he remains a friend. [My course on Galatians owes a lot to him]. Tom Wright was Dean of Lichfield from 1994 to 1999. He spent time going round the Diocese teaching. He was Bishop of Durham from 2003 to 2010 but then went back to academia. He has written a huge amount of books under two heads. When he uses “Tom” these are easily accessible works for the laity and the clergy. When he uses “N.T.” he produces very serious academic works which stretch me to the limits.

As far as studies of Jesus are concerned, two influential works were: Gunther Bornkamm’s “Jesus of Nazareth” (1960) and C.H. Dodd’s “The Founder of Christianity” (1970).

There has been great scepticism since then about whether we can write books about Jesus’ life and ministry and some of those which have come out have not been well-received.

Since retiring I have been tackling N.T. Wright’s huge scholarly works that form his series on “Christian Origins and The Question of God”. I am midway through the third volume. The second volume “Jesus and The Victory of God” (1996) provides the most convincing picture of Jesus that I have read recently. Tom Wright sees Jesus, surely correctly, as in the prophetic tradition. As well as being the new and greater Moses, he is also the new and great Prophet who sums up his predecessors and transforms them. I cannot recommend this for the general reader but under “Tom” Wright he published in the same year: “The Original Jesus: The Life and Vision of a Revolutionary”.

In introducing the Bible Studies, I have also found very helpful the new translation of the New Testament by Nicholas King with his short comments and questions. Then there are the two very approachable and recommendable commentaries by Dick (R.T.) France and Tom Wright.

The BRF (Bible Reading Fellowship) has produced a daily commentary for Bible readers on each Book of the Bible. The advantage is that you get two pages of commentary a day. A slight disadvantage may be that different people provide commentaries for different Books of the Bible. Tom Wright has produced “For Everyone” Commentaries for each Book of the New Testament (although some Books get two volumes – but not Mark). They are published by SPCK. These are the books to go to if you want to explore more. Perhaps, Tom Wright just edges it.

  • R.T. France “Mark” BRF.
  • Tom Wright “Mark for Everyone” SPCK.
  • Tom Wright “The Original Jesus” Lion.

Questions

Chapter 1: 1-45

Is there a Prologue?

There is some debate whether Mark’s Gospel has a Prologue. The two most recent commentators think so but Morna Hooker figures it to be verses 1 to 13 but for Craig Evans, it is just verses 1 to 8. Prologues and overtures usually preface operas.

Personally, I think Mark’s Gospel begins with a bang and there is continuous forward movement from the start. This reminds me of some symphonies like Beethoven’s Fifth or Nielsen’s Fourth (The Inextinguishable).

What do you think?

Nicholas King in his translation of Mark’s Gospel suggests that we should always have two thoughts in mind as we study Mark’s Gospel:

  1. Who is Jesus?
  2. What must Jesus’ disciples be like?

Does the Gospel have a title?

There is some debate about this but the first verse of Mark’s Gospel is crucial.

Verse 1: The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Does ‘beginning’ remind you of other such uses in the Bible?

What is this “good news” (Gospel)?

What does the term “Christ” mean to you?

How do you feel about Mark describing him as “the Son of God”?

Compare this with what must be the climax of the Passion account: Mark 15:31.

Who else was using “the Son of God” as a title?

Verses 2-8: The Proclamation of John the Baptist.

All four Gospels before describing Jesus’ proclamation and ministry describe that of John the Baptist.

What does John make you feel?

If John were to preach amongst us now, who would respond?

How should we treat the Old Testament? Do we ignore it?

Verses 9-11: The Baptism of Jesus.

All four Gospels make some reference to Jesus’ Baptism although this obviously caused the early Christians some problems. Just because of that, this is therefore likely to be a very genuine event.

Why was Jesus baptized?

Why was this needed when he was the ‘Son of God’?

What does it mean to call Jesus as God’s beloved son?

Verses 12-13: The Temptation of Jesus.

We are far more familiar with the accounts of Matthew (4:1-11) and Luke (4:1-13).

Are you missing something?

How often is there an element of urgency in this chapter?

Verses 14-15: The Beginning of the Galilean Ministry.

When is the proclamation to take place?

What do you think “Good News” means here?

Verses 16-20: Jesus Calls the First Disciples.

Does Jesus matter enough for us to take risks for him?

Who is Jesus?

What must Jesus’ disciples be like?

Verses 21-28: The Man with an Unclean Spirit.

Jesus is in the Capernaum Synagogue. What is Jesus doing?

What is the impact does Jesus make?

What causes Jesus to act in the way he does?

Verses 29-35: Jesus Heals Many at Simon’s House.

Why does Jesus heal the mother-in-law?

How does she respond?

Why does Jesus command silence about his healings?

Verses 35-39: A Preaching Tour in Galilee.

What does Jesus do the first thing next morning?

What about Simon Peter’s actions?

What is Jesus’ plan?

Verses 40-45: Jesus Cleanses a Leper.

Jesus comes into contact with someone who may have a highly contagious disease.

Would you be brave enough to touch a leper?

Does this remind you of anyone else in more recent centuries?

And so Chapter 1 comes to an end!

Are you out of breath?

What do you make of Jesus so far?

What do you make of his ministry so far?

“You are sound asleep and dreaming, when suddenly the door bursts open and a bright light shines full in your face. A voice, breaking in on your dream-world, shouts, ‘Wake up! Get up! You’ll be late!’ And without more ado, the speaker splashes your face with cold water to make the point. Time to stop dreaming and face the most important day of your life. That’s what the opening of Mark’s Gospel is like”. Tom Wright.

Comment

THE GOSPEL OF MARK

Chapter 1: 1-20

Is there a Prologue?

There is some debate whether Mark’s Gospel has a Prologue. The two most recent commentators think so, but Morna Hooker figures it to be verses 1 to 13 but for Craig Evans, it is just verses 1 to 8. Prologues and overtures usually introduce operas.

Personally, I think Mark’s Gospel begins with a bang and there is continuous forward movement from the start. This reminds me of some symphonies like Beethoven’s Fifth or Nielsen’s Fourth (The Inextinguishable).

What do you think?

Nicholas King in his translation of Mark’s Gospel suggests that we should always have two thoughts in mind as we study Mark’s Gospel:

  1. Who is Jesus?
  2. What must Jesus’ disciples be like?

Does the Gospel have a title?

There is some debate about this, but the first verse of Mark’s Gospel is crucial.

Verse 1: The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Does ‘beginning’ remind you of other such uses in the Bible?

The Book of Genesis – the first book of the Old Testament and of Jews most holy Torah starts: “In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth…”

The slightly later Gospel of John starts: “In the beginning was the Word…”

What is this “good news” (Gospel)?

There is some debate about whether Mark’s Gospel is a unique new creation. I think it is fair to say that there was nothing like a “Gospel” before. There were secular biographies around in the Roman world and this might have been one inspiration. The other inspiration was surely the Old Testament with its many stories of great figures including Moses, David, Elijah and Elisha. Indeed, the stories of Elijah and Elisha are probably very significant here. Although it is an oxymoron, perhaps we can say that Mark’s Gospel is pretty unique.

The entire story of Jesus’ ministry, including his death, is “good news”. This good news is clarified by the Jewish scriptures. We find the term used particularly by the Second Isaiah (40-55) who proclaimed during the devastating days following the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity in Babylonian prison camps. There it is the salvation that God is sending at any moment.

What does the term “Christ” mean to you?

Christos is the Greek for Messiah and it means ‘anointed’. It is really a title and not a name. We might say “Jesus the Christ” but it is almost used as a name here. After this, Mark will tend to refer to ‘Jesus’ and the use of ‘Christ/Messiah’ is used on two very important occasions. The first is Peter’s Declaration at Caesarea Philippi. The second time is when he is asked if he is the Messiah during his Jewish trial before the Sanhedrin. Many Jews had been waiting for the Messiah but there were disagreements about what this would be like.

How do you feel about Mark describing him as “the Son of God”?

This seems to be a crucial part of Mark’s view of Jesus (although the doctrine of the Trinity was not to be fully developed for three hundred years). Here Mark is very close to the thinking and theology of Paul.

Compare this with what must be the climax of the Passion account: Mark 15:31.

Who else was using “the Son of God” as a title?

Craig Evans is surely right in seeing a parallel here with how the Roman Emperors saw themselves. Mark’s opening words are directly challenging the Roman Emperor cult. And this is underlined when the climatic words of the Passion are put on the lips of a Roman Centurion.

Verses 2-8: The Proclamation of John the Baptist.

All four Gospels before describing Jesus’ proclamation and ministry describe that of John the Baptist. The baptisms carried out by John are again “quite unique”. There were lustrations for Jews who had become contaminated. There were lustrations for Gentiles who were becoming Jews. Men would also have to be circumcised but this was the only rite for women. However, these lustrations (rather like Naaman’s lustration at the command of Elisha) were self-administered. John seems to have been administering baptism to other people including Jews. This was transforming one thing into something quite different.

What does John make you feel?

John was an uncompromising figure. We are told what he wore and what he ate, and both of these facts would make ordinary people uncomfortable. These details suggest that he was a prophet and particularly a figure like Elijah. His message is about confronting sin and that too is uncomfortable. Repentance involves a deliberate turning around and turning to God.

If John were to preach amongst us now, who would respond?

If John were preaching today, he might get some strange stares. Yet, in his time, people came flocking to him to hear his message. Billy Graham’s mission had a similar impact in the States and in our country.

How should we treat the Old Testament? Do we ignore it?

Mark obviously knew the Scriptures but perhaps in their Greek translation. The passage quoted is only in part attributable to Isaiah. The first phrase comes from Malachi and/or Exodus before moving on to the Second Isaiah who proclaimed during the bleak times of the Babylonian captivity. Matthew and Luke clear up this confusion.

One would not normally call the Jordan valley the wilderness, but John’s is a lone voice as if he were in the wilderness. He may well have come out of the wilderness where Jesus is shortly to go. The wilderness also points to the time when the People of Israel were wandering there after their escape from Egypt. This was a time when God was especially close to them.

John’s proclamation is also to someone who is more powerful who will baptize with the Holy Spirit. John is not worthy to deal with his footwear which is the role of a slave. Certainly, the early Church and the Church ever since combines the baptism in water with the coming of the Holy Spirit. The Church for which Mark writes would have known about what happened on that Pentecost which is recorded by Luke in the Acts of the Apostles.

Verses 9-11: The Baptism of Jesus.

All four Gospels make some reference to Jesus’ Baptism although this obviously caused the early Christians some problems. Just because of that, this is therefore likely to be a very genuine event.

Why was Jesus baptized?

Why was this needed when he was the ‘Son of God’?

The other Gospel writers realized there was a problem here. Neither Luke nor John writes that John baptized Jesus. There is that inference, but they shy away from writing it in black and white. Matthew inserts 3:14-15 beginning “John would have prevented him…”

In Mark, there is no hint that John was expecting anything special when his cousin appeared for baptism. At that point, John did not know Jesus was the “powerful one”.

What does it mean to call Jesus as God’s beloved son?

This is the revelation that Jesus is the expected “powerful one”. God speaks, referencing words from the Old Testament. God does so again at the Transfiguration on the mountain (Chapter 9). On that occasion, Moses and Elijah appear to the closest disciples.

Verses 12-13: The Temptation of Jesus.

We are far more familiar with the accounts of Matthew (4:1-11) and Luke (4:1-13). Quite abruptly, we are told that the Spirit drove Jesus into the wilderness for forty days. This is where we get the word “quarantine”. It was not uncommon for people who were atoning for some sin or asking for some healing or preparing for some mission to go into quarantine in the wilderness. Some would have gone a little way in but where they could still be provisioned by their family and friends. It appears that Jesus went further in and was almost completely quarantined. Later, the Desert Father monks would seek a similar experience following the footsteps of Jesus.

Are you missing something?

We do not have the specific temptations that Matthew and Luke give us.

We are told that Jesus was with the wild animals. He was tempted by Satan and ministered to by angels. Satan is a term found in the law courts. He is the prosecution counsel and we see him in this role at the beginning of the Book of Job. Angels are God’s messengers and servants. They are not fully human. But with their help, Jesus survives the natural and supernatural testing. Similarly, Elijah was sustained by God in the wilderness.

How often is there an element of urgency in this chapter?

“And just as” (verse 10), “Immediately (verse 12), “Now” (verse 14), “Immediately” (verses 18 & 20), “Just then” (verse 23), “As soon as” (verse 29). This continues throughout the Gospel of Mark.

Verses 14-15: The Beginning of the Galilean Ministry.

When is the proclamation to take place?

Mark and Luke stress that Jesus’ ministry takes full flight only once John’s ministry is circumscribed by being imprisoned. We notice once again the urgency. This ministry is set in Galilee.

What do you think “Good News” means here?

There are similarities here with John’s proclamation. Like John, Jesus calls for repentance i.e. for people to turn their lives around and turn to God. We notice that Jesus does not proclaim himself as in John’s Gospel but the Kingdom of God. There has been much discussion about this because s sometimes it seems as if this is something in the future but other times, it appears to be very near. It is a key theme of Mark’s Gospel. It could be translated as Kingship of God. This translation helps our thinking. In the life and ministry of Jesus, the Kingship of God has appeared on earth. After his death and resurrection, we still await the time when that Kingship really rules the world.

As Morna Hooker remarks, this passage begins a series of paragraphs that mark out typical features of Jesus’ ministry. Some suggest this is meant to be a typical day in the life of Jesus.

We notice that we are told a minimal amount of information about John the Baptist (what he is wearing) but we are told absolutely nothing about Jesus himself. We would expect to find such basic information in a biography and most stories today.

Verses 16-20: Jesus Calls the First Disciples.

This episode is by the Sea of Galilee. We will see that when Galilee or the Sea of Galilee is mentioned, then something important is happening in Mark’s Gospel.

(While, I generally admire the NRSV translation, I think ‘fish for people’ is crass! “Fishers of people” is better even if ‘fishers’ is rather archaic. “Anglers of people” has a rather more sinister tone). We may have difficulty translating the expression, but it is undoubtedly a very clever turn-of-phrase and probably goes right back to Jesus. They are to catch people for the kingship of God. Hence, there is a great appropriateness in the fish symbol. [The Greek word for fish could also be turned into mnemonic = Jesus Christ God’s son (and) saviour Ιχθυς].

Three little things that we often miss:

  1. Andrew is a Greek name. This highlights the fact that Galilee was a mixed area with Jewish and Greek names. (Jesus is the Greek version of Jeshua/Joshua which is what Jesus would have been called).
  2. James and John may come from a bigger fishing operation because their father Zebedee and the staff are left behind. The fishing business was quite a big one. All four were busy men who left their good prospects behind.
  3. They are not called ‘disciples’ until the next chapter.

Both sets of brothers immediately follow him. Mark may be stressing Jesus’ authority when the brothers obey at once.

Does Jesus matter enough for us to take risks for him?

Who is Jesus?

What must Jesus’ disciples be like?

The immediacy of the two sets of brothers’ actions is striking. Luke introduces the call by a miraculous catch of fish. John’s Gospel tells us that Andrew was a follower of John the Baptist. The Baptist points Andrew towards Jesus. Andrew then brings his brother, Simon Peter, to Jesus.

Verses 21-28: The Man with an Unclean Spirit.

Jesus is in the Capernaum Synagogue. What is Jesus doing?

Capernaum was an important fishing village in Galilee. This is probably where Peter, Andrew, James and John resided. Jesus is teaching in the Synagogue. Teaching is an important in Mark’s understanding of Jesus, although there is more teaching material in the longer Gospels of Matthew and Luke.

What is the impact does Jesus make?

Jesus’ teaching has an immediate impact upon those there. They were astounded because Jesus teaches with ‘authority’. This is another important concept in Mark’s Gospel. He teaches with authority, but he is the opposite of authoritarian. Jesus is contrasted with scribes who will form some of the opposition to Jesus.

What causes Jesus to act in the way he does?

Jesus was not there to perform a miracle, but he is moved by the situation of this man. Miracles play a very important part in Mark’s Gospel and they make up a significant part of this the shortest Gospel.

  • If Jesus’ teaching demonstrates authority, these miracles demonstrate Jesus’ power as someone who is in tune with God.
  • In John’s Gospel, they are called signs. Similarly, what is important for Mark is what these miracles point to: Jesus’ relationship with God and his kingship.
  • Jesus never performs a miracle to show off. Later, in the Gospel, he refuses the Jewish religious leaders who demand a miracle to order.
  • Jesus can only perform miracles if there is faith involved. Later, Mark writes that Jesus could not perform miracles in Nazareth because his hometown had no faith in him.
  • Jesus sees his mission as primarily to the people of Israel, but Gentiles can receive a miracle if they profess faith. The Syrophoenician woman is one such example. Jesus is rude to her but because she demonstrates that she has faith, her daughter is cured.

On this occasion, the unclean spirit recognizes who Jesus is. God acclaims Jesus as his beloved son but so do the unclean spirits which Jesus scolds. Those who witness the healing are again astonished. Other exorcists use incantations, but Jesus commands and it happens. For Mark, this is the main point of the story: Recognized by God and empowered by the Spirit, Jesus possesses authority not previously witnessed.

Verses 29-35: Jesus Heals Many at Simon’s House.

Why does Jesus heal the mother-in-law?

Jesus retires from public view, but his ministry continues. Again, there is the need which causes Jesus’ healing. He touches a woman (and one who could be near death) and therefore, breaks conventions.

How does she respond?

She is able to do ‘service’ to others. We have already seen angels serving Jesus in the wilderness and we see Jesus doing ‘service’ as will his disciples.

Why does Jesus command silence about his healings?

Once the Sabbath is over at sunset, Jesus’ fame means countless people come for healing. Jesus will not let the demons speak because they know his true identity. This is part of Mark’s Messianic Secret.

  • Some of this may go back to Jesus. Jesus does not want people to get false simplistic ideas about his ministry.
  • Mark probably uses this to explain why the majority of Jews did not accept Jesus’ message and ministry.

Verses 35-39: A Preaching Tour in Galilee.

What does Jesus do the first thing next morning?

We see that Jesus gets up early and goes to a deserted place where he prayed. This seems to be a hallmark of Jesus’ ministry and Luke’s Gospel underlines this feature on several occasions.

What about Simon Peter’s actions?

Simon and his companions ‘hunted’ for Jesus. We see that Simon already seems to have a role of leadership. They do not appreciate that Jesus needs time alone with God. However, Jesus does not scold them for breaking into his precious time of prayer.

What is Jesus’ plan?

Perhaps, this quiet time has revealed to Jesus his plan of action. Jesus goes throughout Galilee, his home country, proclaiming the message and casting out demons. We notice that this is centred on the synagogues (as was the apostles’ mission in Acts). The message must spread out from Capernaum to other towns and villages.

Verses 40-45: Jesus Cleanses a Leper.

Jesus touches someone who may have a highly contagious disease.

Would you be brave enough to touch a leper?

This is particularly pertinent at this time of Coronavirus when we are meant to avoid touching other people. There was a great stigma associated with skin diseases and these were often thought to result from God’s judgement. The leper was expected to keep his distance and not come into the centre of a town or village. They were outcasts. Again, we see Jesus is moved to pity. Some scholars translate the word as ‘anger’ but, if so, it is anger at the leper’s situation. Again, Jesus tells him not to tell anyone but to present himself to the priest and obtain his bill of cleansing. The leper spreads the news anyway.

Does this remind you of anyone else in more recent centuries?

Very many people, and indeed saints, have followed in the footsteps of Jesus. Diana, Princess of Wales, was a complicated character but she did immense good with regard to land mines. Here, I am reminded how she touched AIDs patients during that epidemic. This really changed people’s attitude to those suffering from AIDs. They were no longer ‘untouchables’.

And so, Chapter 1 comes to an end!

Are you out of breath?

What do you make of Jesus so far?

What do you make of his ministry so far?

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